Author: Dr. Francis Tolentino

What is Martial Law? Defined by the Merriam-Webster dictionary as ‘the law administered by military forces that is invoked by a government in an emergency when civilian law enforcement agencies are unable to maintain public order and safety.’ In the context of the Philippines, Carinio (1980) describes it as the replacement of civilian rule with military rule, characterized by curfews, military tribunals for civilians, and the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, which is defined as an order issued by a court directing a person detaining another to produce the physical body of the detainee at a designated time and place, and to explain the reason for the detention (Panganiban, 2023).

Implemented through Proclamation 1081 (1072) during the administration of Ferdinand Marcos Sr., the country underwent a period of Martial Law (Batas Militar). This action led to the suspension of ‘constitutional authoritarianism,’ or the theory of the authority of then-President Ferdinand Marcos ‘to propose amendments to the constitution or to assume the power of a constituent assembly’ (Piramide, 2006), and certain important aspects of the Bill of Rights. Consequently, this resulted in detention without charges, the loss of rights to strike, and varying degrees of limitations on freedom of speech, assembly, and of the press.  As a result, there were intellectuals, peasants, and political leaders who were unjustly imprisoned. President Ferdinand Marcos, Sr is often associated with the term Martial Law, and discussions revolve around his personality, achievements, and abuses while in power. In the context of Araling Panlipunan or Social Studies classes, Martial Law is taught as a significant historical event, focusing on important dates, its origins, and how it ultimately ended.

After World War II, Philippine politics changed from one big party to two parties, the Nationalista and Liberal Parties. The Liberals brought in new rich and educated leaders who were more focused on getting wealthy than helping the country. At the same time, poor farmers were mistreated by powerful landlords according to Nadeu (2020), leading to uprisings in 1949.

The Cold War brought in a big fight against Communism, and the United States (US) helped the Philippines fight against the rebels. This was a difficult time for those who wanted more fairness and justice. In the 1970s, students joined the cause to make things better. They were inspired by movements around the world that fought for rights and equality. This time was tough for the government, as more and more people turned against them.

In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos Sr. assumed the presidency of the Republic of the Philippines, heralding an era of significant transformation. Initially praised as a democratic success story, the nation boasted a burgeoning middle class and a well-educated populace. However, over the next two decades, Marcos instigated sweeping changes. He initiated ambitious infrastructure projects funded by substantial borrowing, resulting in mounting national debt. Additionally, he bolstered the military’s influence and capabilities, aligning with the desires of the US at that time. This period marked a profound shift in the Philippines’ political and economic landscape (Nadeau, 2020).

Over the next 20 years, Marcos changed the government from a democracy to an authoritarian rule. This dictatorship continued until he was forced to leave his position as president by a revolution of the people called the EDSA People Power on February 25, 1986. During his time as president, Marcos had to borrow money from both local and foreign lending institutions to fund his priority: building projects. To get loans from monetary organizations like the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, he made the economy more open and removed trade restrictions for big international corporations. This eventually led to a significant increase in the national debt. Like the president before him – Macapagal – Marcos hired experts and technocrats who were trained in Western countries to plan the country’s national development.

As for the security sector, Marcos also made the military relatively bigger and gave the force more power in terms of governing the country. His plan to change the economy, politics, and military suited the foreign policy of the United States at that time. The US wanted countries to focus on exporting goods and having a strong military to fight against communism, which the West saw as a threat to their domination.

In this module on dictatorship and martial law, students will learn about the authoritarian rule of Ferdinand Marcos Sr. in the Philippines. They will explore Marcos’s background, his rise to power, and the potential impact of his presidency. Students will also examine the challenges faced by the country during his administration, including corruption and economic struggles that may have occurred. They will analyze the relationship between Marcos and the US, as well as the accusations of corruption against him and his wife, the first lady Imelda Romualdez Marcos. Through this module, students will explore the history of dictatorship and martial law in the Philippines and how they have affected human rights. We will also discuss the actions taken by Filipinos to end Martial Law, including the People Power 1 movement. The module will emphasize the importance of protecting human rights and democracy. Students will analyze the challenges faced by Filipinos from 1986 to the present and examine the government’s efforts to address these issues. This will provide a comprehensive understanding of the Philippines’ ever-changing political landscape and its ongoing journey towards democracy and human rights.

| Most Essential Learning Competencies

  • Analyze and understand the issues, challenges, and movements during Martial Law in the Philippines, including the People Power 1 revolution;
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of democracy and its essential components, including informed participation, access to information, free and fair elections, rule of law, and strong institutions
  • Recognize the role of  Constitution in a democratic society, as it reflects the values and aspirations of a country’s citizens
  • Discuss and examine the value of defending and preserving human rights and the importance of democratic governance; and
  • Recognize the major issues and challenges faced by Filipinos from 1986 to the present, considering social, political, and economic factors.

| Content Standards

By the end of this module, learners are expected to demonstrate an understanding of:

  • The challenges faced by Filipinos in building and progressing as a nation;
  • The difficult task of sustaining democratic rule amid the country’s economic challenges;
  • The challenges of reflecting the true will of the people through fair elections;
  • The contemporary issues that the Philippines encounters as it continues to progress as a nation; and 
  • The contributions of Filipinos to nation-building.

| Performance Standards

By the end of this module, learners are expected to:

  • Demonstrate active participation in activities that contribute to the development and progress of the country. They will actively engage in initiatives and projects aimed at promoting positive change and addressing societal challenges;
  • Analyze the challenges of sustaining democratic rule in the face of economic difficulties such as poverty, scarce public resources, and extreme inequality, and propose strategies to address these issues within the democratic framework;
  • Critically examine the role of elections in democratic governance and assess methods to ensure they accurately reflect the genuine choices of the electorate, addressing historical instances of election-related challenges.
  • Develop a sense of ownership and accountability, actively carrying out their responsibilities as Filipino citizens; and 
  • Develop a deep appreciation for the rights and freedoms they enjoy as free and prosperous Filipinos.

Lesson 1: Dictatorship and Martial Law

| Lesson Objectives

At the end of the lesson, the student is able to:

  • Analyze the life, background and early achievements of former Philippine president Ferdinand Marcos Sr., to understand his rise to power and the influences that shaped his political career as well as the controversies surrounding his military service and political affiliations;
  • Evaluate the impact of the Marcos Sr. administration on the Philippines by examining its policies and actions, including land reform, infrastructure development, and efforts to combat crime and insurgency, while assessing the economic growth achieved under Marcos’s rule and considering allegations of corruption and misuse of public funds; and 
  • Discuss the consequences of the declaration of martial law on Philippine society and democracy, investigating the events preceding it, analyzing its impact on institutions, media, and civil liberties, and exploring the emergence of resistance movements during this period, ultimately culminating in the People Power revolution that resulted in Marcos’s ouster.

| Key Concepts

  • Constitution- a set of special rules that a country follows. It tells us how the government should work, what rights people have, and what the leaders can and cannot do. It’s like the boss’s rulebook for the whole country.
  • Democratic Institutions- are the important parts of a democratic government that help make sure things are fair and everyone’s voice is heard. These can include things like the courts, where people go to solve problems fairly, and the congress, where laws are made.
  • Democracy- a way of governing a country where the power to make decisions comes from the people. This means that citizens have the right to vote for their leaders and have a say in how the country is run.
  • Dictatorship- a type of government where one person or a small group holds all the power and controls every aspect of society. They usually gain and keep power through force or manipulation.
  • Martial Law- when the military takes control of a country or region, often due to perceived threats to public order or national security. During this time, civil liberties are suspended, and civilian institutions lose their authority.
  • Authoritarianism- a system of government characterized by a strong central power and limited political freedoms. Dissent and opposition are suppressed, and the government has significant control over society.
  • Corruption- refers to the misuse of power or resources by individuals in positions of authority, typically for personal gain. This may include actions such as paying individuals to make decisions in one’s favor, appointing relatives and friends to positions of influence, and diverting public funds and property for private use and personal benefit.  
  • People Power Revolution- a peaceful mass movement that occurred in the Philippines in 1986. It led to the overthrow of President Ferdinand Marcos and the restoration of democracy. The movement was characterized by widespread protests and civil resistance.
  • Opposition Movements- various groups and organizations that actively resist and challenge the dictatorial rule of Ferdinand Marcos. These groups include student activists, labor leaders, religious organizations, social activists, and armed insurgent groups.
  • Human Rights Violations- actions that infringe upon the basic rights and freedoms of individuals, such as arbitrary arrests, torture, censorship, and extrajudicial killings. These violations were prevalent during the Marcos regime.
  • Constitutional Reform- the process of making changes or amendments to a country’s constitution to address shortcomings or adapt to new circumstances. It involves revising the fundamental laws that govern the country.
  • Propaganda- the dissemination of biased or misleading information, often by the government or other organizations, to shape public opinion and maintain control. Propaganda aims to influence people’s beliefs and perceptions

| Self-Evaluation Form (Part I)

1. What do you already know about the significance of understanding the events of Martial Law, People Power, defending human rights, valuing democratic governance, and recognizing the challenges faced by Filipinos from 1986 to the present?

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2. What do you want to know more about the lesson?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

| Sub-Lesson 1: The Profile of the Dictator Ferdinand Marcos Sr.

Ferdinand Marcos Sr wanted everyone to see him as the ultimate representation of the Filipino people. To make this point crystal clear, he had a bust of himself carefully sculpted into a hillside in Luzon.  He portrayed himself as having noble, peasant, warrior, artist, colonial, and nationalist roots, as if he embodied the spirit of the entire nation. His wife, the first lady Imelda Romualdez Marcos, also had important roles in the government especially in culture and the arts and their son, Ferdinand “Bongbong” Marcos Jr., was being prepared to follow in his father’s footsteps.

Marcos according to the accounts of Nadeau (2020), came from a well-off family in Ilocos Norte, Philippines. His mother was a teacher and his father was a politician. They had prominent and influential connections with Filipino and Chinese families. Marcos grew up learning English and American values from American teachers who came to the Philippines.

There are different stories about Marcoses’ family background. According to some accounts, his mother had a relationship with a wealthy Chinese man, but instead, she married Marcos’s father. Ferdinand Marcos’s political career was supported by influential families, including the Chua family. Marcos went to university and became a lawyer. He was involved in a case where he was accused of killing a politician who defeated his father in an election. Marcos was initially found guilty but later won his case in the Supreme Court (Nadeau, 2020).

During World War II, Marcos served in the military, but there are questions about his actual experiences and the medals he claimed to have received as reported in the media reports. The Marcos war medals, comprising 33 decorations, were revealed to be part of a fabricated narrative according to a report by Bondoc 2016. These awards were primarily bestowed at politically strategic moments, with questionable authenticity, including duplicates and some being campaign ribbons, unraveling the myth of Ferdinand Marcos as the most decorated Filipino soldier of World War II.

After the war, he practiced law and eventually entered politics. He joined the Liberal Party and won a seat in the legislature representing his home province Ilocos Norte.

| Sub-Lesson 2: The Dictatorship of Marcos, Sr.

In the presidential elections in November 1965, Ferdinand Marcos, Sr. became the president of the Philippines along with his running mate, Fernando Lopez, as vice president.

When Marcos assumed office, he had three main goals for the Philippines: (1) to grow more rice and different kinds of crops so that the country could have enough food for everyone; (2) to change the way land was owned; and (3) to improve the communities. Marcos worked hard to make his plan happen, but there were many difficult things happening at that time, both inside and outside the country. Agoncillo & Mangahas (2010) described the affairs outside the country at that time where there was a growing conflict called the “cold war” between the United States and the Soviet Union, which was a global competition for world supremacy. In Asia, the communists were involved in intense fighting and had significant support from students, workers, and peasants. The Philippines, as a member of the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization, sent a civic action group to Vietnam to participate in the war. Within the country, there were several troubling incidents, such as the massacre of peasants in Concepcion Tarlac, the cold-blooded killing of 30 members of Lapiang Malay in Manila, repression against the Huk movement, issues of graft and corruption, and unresolved crimes involving government law agents

The country was facing economic difficulties back then with power concentrated in the hands of a few wealthy families. Marcos used the people’s desire for good governance to campaign for a better nation. Quoting his first state of the nation address in 1966, “Graft and corruption in our government must be exposed and eliminated,” he acknowledged the challenges the country faced, including corruption and a struggling economy.

The government did not have enough money to pay for basic social services like education, healthcare, social support, defense, and building roads and bridges. To get more money, Marcos borrowed from other countries through organizations like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. He used the money to connect all the islands in the Philippines by building roads and bridges, exemplified by the San Juanico Bridge linking Samar and Leyte provinces.  He also tried to help farmers grow more food by using new types of rice and better irrigation systems (Agoncillo, 1960).

However, there were problems in the countryside with people protesting and causing disruptions. Marcos had to take strong actions against these groups, like the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) and its armed group the New People’s Army (NPA). In the cities, he made the police force, through the Philippine Constabulary, stronger to fight crime syndicates and curb rebellion.

Under Marcos’s rule, the economy grew, but he and his wife, Imelda, were accused of corruption and misusing public funds. They controlled the media to spread false information about their supposed development projects. Marcos used his power to influence the legislature and distribute government funds to those loyal to him. Historians even tag their rule as conjugal dictatorship (X. Chua, personal interview, July 12, 2023).

In the 1969 presidential elections, the Marcos-Lopez tandem was reelected for a second term. However, the election campaign was marred by fraud and the utter misuse of public funds. Marcos spent a huge amount of money on advertising and bribed political figures to ensure their support according to accounts of Nadeu (2020).

In the end, Marcos’ second term was marked by his continued control over the legislative branch and the distribution of government funds based on loyalty. Despite controversies surrounding his rule, he was reelected as president for a second term.

| Sub-Lesson 3: Declaration of Martial Law

Due to evidence of rigged elections and the manipulation of Congress to consolidate power, trust in Marcos’ leadership eroded. This led to civil disobedience and a violent crackdown on protesters. The people’s demands for good governance, an end to corruption, and various reforms highlighted the loss of trust in the Marcos government as peaceful citizens took to the streets in protest. After the re-election of Marcos, a group of college students marched to the presidential palace to demand change. Protesters from the different parts of the country were calling for better governance and an end to corruption. They advocated land reform for farmers and peasant workers, affordable housing, cheaper prices for essential items, more job opportunities, improvements in the system and quality of education, and the formation of a new constitution to replace the old one, the 1935 Philippine Constitution. They were concerned that the president had excess power, and they wanted safeguards against possible election fraud.

Unfortunately, the protest turned violent when the police shot and killed four protesters at the Mendiola Bridge as narrated by Nadeu (2020). This event became a symbol of sacrifice and bravery during the country’s darkest history.

In 1970, Marcos agreed to convene a convention the following year to review the old constitution. This Constitutional Convention was tasked with drafting a new constitution. After completing the new charter, President Marcos submitted it to 26,000 Citizens Assemblies nationwide. “The Kapulungan,” a gathering of all these assemblies, convened from January 10 to 15, 1973, to review the provisions of the new constitution.

This convention could have posed a threat to Marcos’ grip on power, as one of its stipulations, for example, was put forth by the Committee on Suffrage and Electoral Reforms, chaired by freedom fighter Raul S. Manglapus (Rizal, 1st District). This resolution stated that “No person who has served as President of the Philippines shall be eligible to occupy the same office or that of chief minister or chief executive any time in the future, nor shall his spouse or relatives to the second degree by consanguinity or affinity be eligible to occupy the same office during any unexpired portion of his term or in one immediately succeeding term.” However, it also provided Marcos with an opportunity to bribe delegates in order to alter the rule that limited the president to only two terms. This was exemplified on May 19, 1972 as written by Montalvan (2023), when a scandal emerged. Eduardo Quintero, a former ambassador to the United Nations and representative of Leyte’s 1st District, exposed a bribery scheme. This scheme involved 12 of his fellow delegates, along with the wife of Leyte congressman Artemio Mate and Imelda Marcos, the first lady. The exposé by the 72-year-old Quintero confirmed long-standing public suspicions that the Marcoses were exerting undue influence over the proceedings, seeking to secure provisions that would extend their time in power. This revelation held particular significance given Quintero’s indebtedness to the Romualdezes, who had supported his election.

During the convention, there were local elections happening across the country. Marcos was accused of orchestrating several bombings, including one at a Liberal Party rally in Manila, where innocent people were killed and injured. According to Agoncillo (1960), Marcos falsely blamed these incidents on the Communists to create an excuse to declare martial law.

The bombings and the false information spread by Marcos turned more people against his government. The press coined the term the beginning of the “first quarter storm” to describe this sequence of events (Totanes, 1998). In 1972, he declared martial law, giving him complete control over the Philippines for more than a decade.

| Sub-Lesson 4: The First Quarter Storm

The “First Quarter Storm” happened in early 1970 and it was a very turbulent time in our country as described by Agoncillo & Mangahas (2010). Students in Metro Manila and nearby provinces protested against President Marcos. They were upset because he wanted to change the rules so he could stay in power longer than what was legally allowed by the law then.

During one protest, an object was hurled at the President as he exited a building, resulting in widespread chaos compounded by gunfire.  Numerous individuals sustained injuries, and the police apprehended several students, intensifying the atmosphere of fear and violence. Tragically, Liza Balando, a young labor leader, was struck by a stray bullet and lost her life.

Four days later, on January 30, 1970 a more aggressive protest unfolded, drawing participants from various backgrounds. The demonstration ended in a violent clash at the Malacanang gates, known as the “Battle of Mendiola.”  In an article by Reyes & Ariate (2020), one prominent account of the First Quarter Storm that has become widely recognized is Jose F. Lacaba’s “Days of Disquiet, Nights of Rage.” In this book, four students who lost their lives in this protest rally who later on  identified as Felicisimo Roldan from Far Eastern University, Ricardo Alcantara from the University of the Philippines, Fernando Catabay from Manuel Luis Quezon University, and Bernardo Tausa from Mapa High School.  

In the following months, there were more protests. Teachers went on leave because they were not getting paid on time. Students at the University of the Philippines took over their campus for 12 days, famously dubbed the “Diliman Commune.”. The protests spread to other cities as well , from Baguio, Davao, and Cagayan de Oro to the Mindanao State University in Lanao del Sur. The students demanded better education and more job opportunities. They became sick of massive corruption and wanted the government to listen to their concerns. 

Some people said the students caused the violence by throwing dangerous things at the police. But others believed the police used too much force. They thought the students had valid reasons to be angry and were just asking for fair treatment (Agoncillo & Mangahas, 2010).

In a subsequent account, La Viña (2022) examined one of the numerous instances of corruption within the regime, which pertained to the case of the Marcos family against the Republic of the Philippines, G.R. No. 189434, dated April 25, 2012. In this case, the Republic, represented by both the Philippine Commission on Good Governance (PCGG) and the Office of the Solicitor General (OSG), sought to label Swiss bank accounts amounting to USD 356 million, along with two treasury notes valued at USD 25 million and USD 5 million, as illicitly acquired assets.

| Sub-Lesson 5: The ouster of the Dictator President Marcos Sr. and the Restoration of Democracy

When Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law in the Philippines on September 21, 1972, it triggered a period of resistance and struggle against his regime. Given the predominantly religious population of the country, it was not surprising that various groups according to Nadeu (2020), including the Moro National Liberation Front, the New People’s Army, and Christian social activists, stood up for their rights and fought against injustice. This marked a significant chapter in Philippine history, as the churches and the people united to challenge Marcos’s dictatorship and strive for a better future.

During martial law, the churches became important because other institutions like Congress, courts, and media were repressed by the military by shutting them down and raiding and padlocking their offices. The Catholic Church, in particular, fought for the rights of the poor and oppressed. For the media, only those who are aligned to the Marcos regime’s dictatorship were allowed to operate but still under the strict monitoring of the Marcos’ military men, as narrated by writer and historian Torres (2021) in his book “BALITA: The History of Philippine Journalism: 1916-2019”. The movement against Marcos was also inspired by the country’s history of social activism, which dates back to the fight against Spanish rule.

In January 1981, according to Schirmer & Shalom (1987), Marcos made an announcement to formally end martial law and restore freedom. Quoting the president’s speech during this day “And, so, as I have said, as I sign this decree in your presence proclaiming the termination of the state of martial law throughout the Philippines, I say, we have just begun” (Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, 1981).  However, despite the lifting of martial law, all of Marcos’s martial law decrees, which amounted to more than one thousand, remained in effect. Marcos retained the authority to order arrests without charging individuals, legislate through decrees, and override the National Assembly. As argued by Maximiano (2021), the lifting of martial law was primarily a symbolic gesture, merely a surface-level change timed conveniently for St. John Paul II’s first pastoral visit to the country. 

The growing revolution of the people with the Marcos dictatorship gained momentum when Benigno Aquino Jr., a vocal critic of Marcos, was assassinated in 1983. His death sparked outrage, and he became a national hero. Aquino had been a strong opponent of Marcos and had exposed corruption in the government. He was arrested and imprisoned for several years, enduring torture and isolation.

In 1986, after years of struggle, Corazon Aquino, Ninoy’s widow, was elected president in a snap election. The military split, and some officers joined a movement for reform. Minister of Defense Enrile and General Ramos took control of major bases and sought support from the American Ambassador, the Archbishop of Manila, and Corazon Aquino. With massive public support, they forced Marcos into exile, and democracy was restored with Corazon Aquino as the new president under a transition government. The series of protests that followed the election gained strength and led to the revolution that took place from February 22 to 25, 1986, at EDSA. This event forced Marcos and his family to flee the country with the help of the United States. Instead of settling in the Ilocos region as Marcos had hoped, they ended up making Hawaii their new home (Tan, 2008).

This   peaceful  revolution,  known  as  the EDSA People Power movement, was a turning point in Philippine history witnessed by the whole world.

| Sub-Lesson 6: EDSA People Power 1

In 1986, the Philippines bore witness to a momentous event known as the People Power Revolution. Over the course of four days, from February 22 to 25, hundreds of thousands of Filipinos converged on Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) to vehemently protest the rule of President Ferdinand Marcos, who had claimed victory in a controversial re-election over Corazon Aquino. Marcos had held power since 1965, orchestrating a regime marked by authoritarian control, curtailed civil liberties, and the relentless suppression of political dissent. Accounts of Sanchez (2021) stated that the Marcos government was notorious for imprisoning and torturing political opponents, rewriting the Philippine constitution, and amassing vast wealth through control of the media and siphoning international funds. The People Power movement had been quietly gathering momentum for years, with dedicated activists working both within the Philippines and in exile to expose the atrocities and corruption of the Marcos regime. Despite this, some foreign governments, notably the U.S., had supported Marcos as a Cold War ally.

Key turning points came in the form of Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr.’s assassination in 1983, which shocked the world, and rumors surrounding Marcos’s health, which ignited discussions about his potential successors. In 1985, Marcos’s call for a “snap election” left Filipinos grappling with the question of whether it was an opportunity for change or a trap. Many decided to boycott the election, fearing that participation would legitimize the regime, while others rallied behind Corazon “Cory” Aquino, widow of Senator Aquino. The protests on EDSA grew in strength, and despite Marcos’s orders to suppress them, a faction of military officers refused to do so, including those associated with the Reform the Armed Forces Movement (RAM). The Catholic Church played a crucial role in supporting the peaceful protests, and Radio Veritas became a vital communication hub. International pressure mounted against Marcos, eventually leading to his departure for Hawaii on February 25, 1986. As Corazon Aquino was sworn in as President, the world celebrated the triumph of People Power, an enduring example of how ordinary citizens can unite to effect positive change and restore democracy.

 

| Sub-Lesson 7: Recovering Democracy in the Post-Marcos Era and the Pursuit of Justice

The events in 1986 marked a significant turning point in its history of the Philippines as it emerged from the oppressive grip of President Ferdinand Marcos, a dictator who ruled with an iron fist for over two decades. The aftermath of Marcos’s regime bore witness to a concerted effort to defend and promote human rights and democracy in the country.

Following her rise to power, President Corazon Aquino instituted a revolutionary government based on the “Freedom Constitution,” temporarily defining the government structure until a democratically-crafted constitution could be adopted for Pres. Aquino’s “Bagong Demokrasya” or New Democracy. Under this new administration, key changes were implemented, including the dissolution of the Batasang Pambansa, which was predominantly controlled by Marcos’s loyalists, the appointment of new Supreme Court justices, and the replacement of Marcos appointees with officers-in-charge (OICs). Subsequently, efforts were made to seize control of all suspected ill-gotten monies, assets, properties, and valuables associated with the Marcos family and their cronies. This endeavor was executed through the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG), led by former Senator Jovito R. Salonga, who swiftly sequestered businesses and corporations linked to Marcos, revealing the staggering wealth amassed by Marcos and his associates, amounting to approximately one-third of the nation’s total resources (Agoncillo & Mangahas, 2010).

Another crucial step taken to restore democracy and human rights in the country was the passage of Republic Act No. 10368, also known as the “Human Rights Victims Reparation and Recognition Act of 2013.” This landmark legislation reflects the nation’s commitment to justice and healing after years of human rights abuses.

The law begins by declaring a clear policy of recognizing the heroism and sacrifices of Filipinos who suffered during Marcos’s regime, which spanned from September 21, 1972, to February 25, 1986. It acknowledges the moral and legal obligation of the state to provide recognition and reparation to victims and their families for the physical and psychological suffering they endured. This act was a vital step in promoting democracy and safeguarding human rights in the Philippines (RA 10368, 2013) 

Under the Act, a Human Rights Victims’ Claims Board was established to receive, evaluate, process, and investigate applications for claims. It also set criteria for the determination of awards, considering the gravity of human rights violations suffered by each victim. The monetary reparation provided was derived from funds recovered from Marcos’s ill-gotten wealth.

Furthermore, the Act established the Roll of Victims, which enshrines the names of all human rights victims, whether they sought reparation or not. It also created the Human Rights Violations Victims’ Memorial Commission to preserve the memory of these victims and educate future generations about the atrocities committed during the Marcos regime.

| Sub-Lesson 8: The Philippines in 1987, Challenges and Change

In 1987, during the second year of Corazon C. Aquino’s presidency in the Philippines, the initial excitement of the February Revolution had waned. As narrated by Hernandez (1988), the government faced numerous challenges inherited from years of misrule. President Aquino, once celebrated for her victory over Marcos and her rise to power, now faced criticism as she grappled with governing a nation transitioning from dictatorship to democracy. The country struggled with economic difficulties and ongoing political instability, obstructing efforts to bring peace and prosperity. Extremists within and outside the government hindered these endeavors, and sectors holding positions of privilege and power resisted the democratization process. This year was primarily focused on re-democratization, a challenging process given the unique circumstances of the Philippines’ transition. Economic recovery was also important, but it was to be achieved within a democratic framework rather than under a dictatorship, allowing ordinary citizens to participate more effectively in governance and decision-making.

To rebuild democratic political institutions, the Aquino government’s first task was drafting and ratifying a new constitution. This was successfully achieved in early 1987, although the ratification campaign often revolved around President Aquino’s popularity rather than the merits of the constitution itself. The new constitution reestablished a presidential government with a system of checks and balances, reducing executive powers considerably. It also included provisions safeguarding national patrimony, foreign military base agreements, and nuclear weapons policies. However, while the constitution was popularly supported, it faced opposition from some segments of the military.

Elections for the two houses of Congress took place in May 1987, resulting in resounding victories for President Aquino’s candidates. Nevertheless, some challenges emerged, such as candidates from different government coalition parties contesting the same seats, splitting votes, and hindering the coalition’s cohesion. Press freedom expanded, but concerns arose over irresponsible journalism and disinformation campaigns by anti government radio stations during coup attempts. Local elections and political dynasty issues further complicated the political landscape.

The socioeconomic foundations of democracy were another critical focus in 1987. The Philippines sought to alleviate poverty and unemployment through economic growth. While the economy showed signs of improvement, several factors, including military coups, communist insurgency, and natural disasters, affected its growth. The government also attempted to address labor issues, agrarian reform, and its external debt. However, challenges persisted in achieving economic stability and social justice.

Efforts to end communist and Moro insurgencies through peaceful means failed in 1987, leading to a shift in the government’s approach towards a more hardline stance. While the insurgency continued to challenge the government, waning popular support for insurgents and the government’s rebel returnee program offered some hope for resolution.

The military remained a significant factor in the Philippines’ democratization process, with coup attempts posing a threat to the government. However, the majority of the military remained committed to constitutionalism, and pay increases and the dismissal of controversial officials aimed to reduce support for coup plotters. To ensure a stable transition to democracy, civilian control over the military needed to be firmly institutionalized.

Foreign relations were also a key concern, with the Philippines hosting the Third ASEAN Summit in 1987. This event showcased support from ASEAN countries for President Aquino and her government. The Philippines also engaged in negotiations with Malaysia regarding the Sabah issue. Additionally, the government faced the challenge of reviewing the bases agreement with the United States, which was set to expire in 1991.

Looking ahead to 1988, the Philippines aimed to continue the process of red-democratization, addressing socioeconomic and political issues while sustaining popular support. Economic performance, combating corruption, and reducing cronyism would be crucial to maintaining stability and minimizing threats of coups.

| Sub-Lesson 9: Presidents, Challenges, and Achievements Beyond the Marcos and Aquino Administration

Fidel Valdez Ramos became the president of the Philippines after Corazon Aquino in 1992. He started as a military officer and became an important figure in the government of Ferdinand Marcos, where he enforced martial law and arrested citizens who criticized the government. However, after the People’s Power revolution in 1986, he switched sides and joined Corazon Aquino’s presidential campaign. 

As president as discussed by Nadeu (2020), Ramos wanted to make the Philippines a strong economy by the year 2000. He had a plan called “Philippine 2000” that aimed to attract foreign investors and increase industrialization. While this plan attracted international investments and created jobs, it faced opposition from some groups who believed it focused too much on industry and not enough on agriculture and the needs of the poor. Additionally, the Philippines faced economic challenges during the Asian economic crisis in 1997, but Ramos managed to stabilize the situation.

In 1998, Joseph Estrada became the president of the Philippines with strong support from the poor. He promised to fight poverty, crime, and corruption in the government. However, during his presidency, he faced several challenges. His image began to decline as he surrounded himself with friends who took advantage of their access to the president for personal gain. Corruption allegations started to surface, including receiving bribes from illegal gambling syndicates and misusing government funds.

In 2000, a provincial governor revealed that he had given millions of pesos in bribes to Estrada, leading to impeachment proceedings. But when the Senate refused to investigate certain bank records, citizens took to the streets in protest. This People Power II revolution led to the military and police supporting Vice President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, and ultimately, Estrada was removed from office, with Arroyo becoming the new president. Despite his initial promise to help the poor, Estrada’s presidency was marred by corruption and controversy, ultimately leading to his downfall.

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, the 14th president of the Philippines, faced many challenges during her time in office. When she became president in 2001, the country was dealing with social, economic, and political issues. One of her biggest challenges was winning back the support of the poor, who had previously supported the deposed President Joseph Estrada. To address this, she had to work on economic reforms and make the Philippines more competitive in the global market.

Another major challenge was dealing with Muslim separatist groups, especially Abu Sayyaf, which was involved in kidnappings and terrorism. President Arroyo signed a cease-fire agreement with one separatist group, but Abu Sayyaf continued its criminal activities. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States, Arroyo joined the fight against terrorism and deployed troops to combat Abu Sayyaf, with some support from the U.S. military. However, this move was controversial and faced criticism from some groups who saw her as too closely aligned with the United States.

Arroyo also struggled to tackle corruption within the government, but her efforts often exposed weaknesses in enforcing the law and collecting taxes. Despite facing opposition and protests, she was re-elected in 2004, but her presidency continued to be marked by challenges and controversies. President Arroyo had to find solutions to these complex issues during her time in office, striving to improve the lives of the Filipino people while navigating a challenging political landscape (Nadeu, 2020).

Her successor, President Benigno Aquino III promised to fight corruption and poverty during his administration. He used the slogan “Kung walang corrupt, walang mahirap” (If there are no corrupt officials, there would be no poor people) to connect his family’s legacy to the issue of poverty and gained support from the masses. 

His plan as discussed by Sabillo (2015) to combat poverty included creating better-paying jobs, supporting businesses, improving education, and providing healthcare. He also implemented the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program, which gave money to poor families in exchange for their children attending school and receiving proper health care. This program aimed to redistribute income to the disadvantaged.

While some praised the CCT program, others criticized it, saying it didn’t address the root causes of poverty, such as the lack of jobs and opportunities in agriculture and manufacturing. Some argued that the government needed a more comprehensive approach to tackle poverty.

Despite some improvements in government data, surveys showed that many Filipinos still considered themselves poor during Aquino’s presidency. Critics argued that poverty was still a significant issue, and the government needed to do more to address it.

President Rodrigo Roa Duterte, the successor of President Benigno Aquino III, had both achievements and challenges during his time in office. Among his major achievements as stated by Lopez (2020), he significantly reduced poverty and made the economy more inclusive by implementing policies like the Rice Tariffication Law, Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Law, and the Universal Health Care Act. He also led a popular campaign against illegal drugs, reducing crime and strengthening his image as a strong leader. Duterte challenged abusive utilities, sought to break up oligarchies, and managed the country’s finances well, earning high credit ratings.

However, there were significant challenges during his presidency. The Philippines faced its worst economic downturn, especially due to the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to a historic recession. Duterte’s early and strict lockdown failed to contain the pandemic, and the country became an epicenter of COVID-19 cases in Southeast Asia. The campaign against illegal drugs resulted in alleged human rights violations, with reports of thousands of deaths. The government’s efforts to contain communist insurgency and Muslim separatist movements faced challenges, and Duterte’s close ties with the police and military raised concerns about corruption and accountability.

| Sub-Lesson 10: Philippine Independence, From Historical Legacies to Current Challenges

In May 2022, Ferdinand “Bongbong” Marcos Jr., the son of former Philippine leader Ferdinand Marcos, won the presidential election with a surprising 59% of the vote. This left many people wondering how someone from the family of a leader who had suspended elections, restricted media freedom, violated human rights, and been involved in corruption could win so convincingly. Researchers according to Blackwood (2023)  found that voters’ support for former President Rodrigo Duterte and a strong sense of ethnic identity were key factors in Bongbong Marcos’s victory. This outcome reflects a global trend of growing support for leaders with autocratic tendencies and raises concerns about the strength of democratic institutions. It also shows how historical legacies can shape the course of a country’s politics and democracy.

Timeline of Marcos Dynasty: Photo taken from AFP News Agency

 

According to economic analyst George Siy, as reported by Fernandez (2022), the administration led by President Ferdinand “Bongbong” Marcos Jr. is currently confronted with three significant challenges. Firstly, there is a pressing need to tackle inflation, particularly concerning the escalating prices of essential commodities such as food, transportation, and electricity, which are substantially impacting the daily lives of the citizens. Siy underscores that surges in food prices can swiftly lead to widespread disruptions, as observed at the height of the Covid-19 pandemic. Secondly, the administration must focus on preparing for the impending “Fourth Industrial Revolution”, a technological paradigm shift expected to have a profound influence on the country’s economy in the coming years. This revolution entails the integration of various advanced technologies. Siy highlights the imperative to enhance education and promote digitalization within the economy, aiming to alleviate traffic congestion, foster increased business opportunities, and ultimately enhance the overall quality of life for Filipinos. Finally, Siy underscores the vital importance of effectively addressing foreign policy challenges. He contends that the Philippines should adopt a proactive stance in shaping policies within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and on the global stage, rather than merely reacting to directives from external powers. Such an approach would empower the Philippines to assert a stronger voice in international deliberations, particularly in matters concerning the South China Sea dispute, where the country vehemently opposes any attempts to undermine prior arbitration rulings.

The People power movement, demonstrated during the reign of the dictator Ferdinand Marcos Sr., holds significant lessons for Filipinos. It shows that the collective efforts of ordinary citizens can bring about important changes in our country’s history. However as argued by Bautista (1986), it’s essential to understand that people power should not stop at just one event; it should continue to play a role in improving the nation. It teaches the importance of involving the public in political decisions and government management through regular channels and people’s councils at local and national levels. Participatory decision-making, especially including underprivileged citizens, is crucial for effective governance and self-reliance. People power also emphasizes the need for monitoring and evaluation to hold the government accountable and prevent corruption. The people power’s mission is successful when it establishes formal channels for popular participation in our country’s governance.

 

| Self-Evaluation Form (Part 2)

Answer the following questions.

  1. How did Ferdinand Marcos Sr. use his position as president to consolidate power and establish a dictatorship in the Philippines?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. What were the significant events and consequences of the declaration of martial law by Ferdinand Marcos Sr. in 1972, and how did it impact the Filipino people?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. What were some of the major challenges faced by the Philippines during the presidency of Corazon Aquino, and how did her government address them?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. In your own words, explain the significance of the People Power movement in the Philippines and why it continues to be an important lesson in the country’s history.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

List of Activities

| Synchronous Activities

Activity 1: Virtual Verdicts: Unveiling Marcos’s Presidency

 

Description: In this engaging virtual debate activity, grade 6 students will delve into the controversial topic of Ferdinand Marcos’s presidency and martial law. Divided into two groups, students will assume the roles of either supporters or opponents of Marcos. Armed with research and evidence, they will present compelling arguments supporting their positions. Through a lively virtual debate session, students will develop critical thinking skills as they analyze different perspectives and engage in respectful dialogue. The activity will culminate in a class discussion, where students reflect on the complexity of historical events and the impact of Marcos’s rule.

 Instructions:

  •  Divide the class into two groups: Group A (supporters of Ferdinand Marcos) and Group B (opponents of Ferdinand Marcos).
  •  Assign each group a set of arguments supporting their respective positions. Group A will focus on highlighting the positive aspects of Marcos’s administration. Group B will emphasize the negative aspects, such as human rights abuses and corruption.
  • Provide time for both groups to research and gather evidence to support their arguments.
  • Organize a virtual debate session where students from each group take turns presenting their arguments and counter-arguments.
  • Encourage students to respectfully challenge each other’s viewpoints and provide evidence to support their claims.
  • After the debate, facilitate a class discussion to reflect on the different perspectives presented and encourage students to consider the complexity of historical events

 

Activity 2: Portraits of Change: Martial Law Through the Eyes of the Youth

Description:  Students will be instructed to listen to an interview conducted by the author with renowned Philippine historian Xiao Chua. The interview focuses on the hypothetical question of what life would be like for today’s youth if Martial Law were still in effect. Afterward, students will engage in a 30-minute discussion to share their thoughts on martial law. They will then create visual representations reflecting their opinions and feelings, followed by presenting and discussing their artwork for 5 minutes each. This activity encourages critical thinking, empathy, and creative expression while exploring the historical and societal implications of martial law.

Instructions:

  • Listen to the author’s interview with renowned Philippine historian Xiao Chua on his thoughts regarding the hypothetical question: “What if Martial Law were still in effect today? What would life be like for the youth?”
  • Link: https://youtu.be/7vhVBDpnqI0
  • After listening to the interview, students will have 30 minutes to discuss their thoughts on martial law with their classmates.
  • Subsequently, students will present a picture or any visual representation reflecting their opinions or feelings about martial law, based on the audio interview with Xiao Chua.
  • Each student will be given 5 minutes to discuss in class their visual representation of martial law.

| Asynchronous Activities

Activity 1: Point of View:  Millennial Youth and Martial Law Victims  

Description: In this activity, students will watch the video “Millennials for Martial Law” by CARMMA PH, which explores different perspectives on martial law in the Philippines from interviewed millennials. After watching the video, students will answer questions that prompt them to reflect on what they have learned about martial law, their thoughts on the opinions expressed by the millennials in the video, and whether they believe these viewpoints represent the broader youth population in the Philippines. Students will then share their 200-word reflections through a Google Docs document. This activity aims to develop critical thinking skills, empathy, and an understanding of diverse perspectives, allowing students to engage with the complexities of martial law in the Philippines and its impact on different generations.

Instructions:

  1. What did you learn about martial law in the Philippines from the video?
  2. What are your thoughts on the opinions of the millennials interviewed in the video?
  3. Do you think that the youth in the video are representative of all the youth in the Philippines on how they view Martial Law? Why or why not?
  •  Share you 200-word thoughts through Google Docs

 

Activity 2: Voices Unsilenced: Understanding Martial Law through Felix Dalisay’s Story

Description:  Students will watch the video “Martial Law victim still carries trauma of the past” by Rappler. The video focuses on Felix Dalisay, a victim of martial law in the Philippines. Students will answer questions related to the challenges faced by Felix Dalisay during martial law, the impact on daily lives, lessons about human rights and democracy, and parallels to current situations. They will then create a PowerPoint or video presentation to express their answers, fostering creativity and deeper understanding of the topic. The activity aims to promote empathy, critical thinking, and awareness of historical events and their significance in contemporary contexts.

Instructions:

  1. What were some of the challenges faced by Felix Dalisay during martial law? How did he respond to those challenges?
  2. How did martial law impact the daily lives of people like Felix Dalisay?
  3. What can we learn from Felix Dalisay’s experiences about the importance of safeguarding human rights and democracy?
  4. Can you think of any parallels between Felix Dalisay’s experiences and situations in our world today?
  • Create a PowerPoint presentation or a Video presentation expressing your answers to the guide questions above

| Self-Paced Learning (Optional Activities)

Activity 1: Martial Law Reflections

Description:

Instructions: Students in this activity will watch the video “Martial law in the Philippines” by Manila Bulletin Online to gain insight into the events of Philippine Martial Law. They will then write a reflection paper, considering major events, their effects on individuals’ lives, surprising actions or decisions, and the importance of remembering and learning from Martial Law. Students will also establish a personal connection to the events and explore parallels to current societal situations. By engaging in this activity, students will deepen their understanding and develop critical thinking skills.

  • Begin by watching the video “Martial law in the Philippines” by Manila Bulletin Online.  It presents a condensed timeline of the events during Philippine Martial Law. This video will provide the students with insights into the key moments, policies, and prominent figures associated with this historical era.
  •  Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=svwNnhjhdkc
  • Reflection Paper.  Following the video, the students will engage in reflective writing to express our thoughts, emotions, and insights regarding the depicted events. Compose a reflection paper wherein you contemplate the following guiding questions:
  1.  Which major events stood out to you the most during the timeline?
  2. How do you perceive the effects of these events on the lives of individuals in the Philippines during that period?
  3. Were there any actions or decisions made during Martial Law that surprised or raised concerns for you? If so, why?
  4. Do you believe it is essential to remember and learn from the events of Martial Law? Explain your viewpoint.
  • Personal Connection. In your reflection paper, establish a personal connection to the events of Martial Law. Reflect on how these historical occurrences relate to your life or contemporary circumstances. Consider any parallels you can draw between past events and current societal situations.
  • Structure and Presentation. Craft your reflection paper using appropriate academic conventions, including well-structured paragraphs, coherent organization of ideas, and accurate grammar and punctuation. Should you wish to enhance your reflection, feel free to incorporate relevant illustrations, drawings, or supporting visuals.

 

Activity 2: Position paper: Analyzing Conflicting Views on the Burial of Former President Marcos

Description: Students will watch the video “Reel Time: Dalawang magkaibang panig sa Marcos issue” by GMA Public Affairs, accessible through the provided link. After watching the video, students will craft a position paper expressing their stance on whether former President Marcos should be buried at the Heroes’ Cemetery (Libingan ng mga Bayani). The position paper should include an introduction, supporting arguments with evidence, acknowledgment and addressing of counterarguments, a conclusion restating the main arguments, research, critical analysis of conflicting views, and a visually appealing presentation. Through this activity, students will engage in critical thinking, research, and analysis while exploring the complex issue surrounding the burial of former President Marcos.

Instructions: 

  • Watch the video “Reel Time: Dalawang magkaibang panig sa Marcos issue” by GMA Public Affairs
  • Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5E90ME9plqM
  • Position Paper. After watching the video, students will craft a position paper expressing their stance on whether former President Marcos should be buried at the Heroes’ Cemetery (Libingan ng mga Bayani). The position paper should include the following components:
  • Introduction. Clearly state your position and provide a brief overview of the issue.
  • Supporting Arguments. Present two or three strong arguments supporting your position. These arguments should be well-reasoned and supported by evidence or examples.
  • Counter Arguments. Acknowledge and address at least one counterargument to your position, demonstrating an understanding of opposing viewpoints.
  • Conclusion.  Summarize your position and restate your main arguments.
  • Research and Evidence. Conduct additional research to gather evidence and examples that support your position. Look for credible sources such as news articles, historical records, or expert opinions to strengthen your arguments.
  • Critical Analysis. Reflect on the reasons behind conflicting views on the issue. Consider the historical context, the impact of President Marcos’ actions during martial law, and the perspectives of different stakeholders, including martial law victims and supporters of Marcos.
  • Presentation. Prepare a visually appealing and concise presentation of your position paper. Use PowerPoint, Google Slides, or other presentation tools to showcase your arguments, supporting evidence, and critical analysis. Include relevant images or graphs to enhance your presentation.

Self-Evaluation Form (Part 2)

Answer the following questions.

  1. How did Ferdinand Marcos Sr. use his position as president to consolidate power and establish a dictatorship in the Philippines?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. What were the significant events and consequences of the declaration of martial law by Ferdinand Marcos Sr. in 1972, and how did it impact the Filipino people?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. What were some of the major challenges faced by the Philippines during the presidency of Corazon Aquino, and how did her government address them?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. In your own words, explain the significance of the People Power movement in the Philippines and why it continues to be an important lesson in the country’s history.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Learning Resources

 

The Martial Law Museum.  Retrieved from  https://martiallawmuseum.ph/

Mendoza MP.  (2020, July 20) The road to EDSA.  Retrieved from https://youtu.be/n_Ne8KTuJBk

UNTV News and Rescue (2022, June 30) KILALANIN: Mga Presidente ng Pilipinas.  Retrieved from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OGP-aNl5G44

 

Self-Evaluation Forms (Part 2)

Answer the following questions.

 

  1. What have you learned from the lesson?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. How will you apply the knowledge you have learned in this lesson in improving Philippine society?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

| Rubric for Discussions

 

Excellent Above Average Developing Needs Improvement
Content:

The central theme/idea/argument of the student’s output is focused and supported by evidence which indicates mastery of the content.

Organization: 

The flow of the discussion of the central theme/idea/theme is coherent.

Presentation:

The form and presentation of the central theme/idea is clear, persuasive, polite, and easy to understand.

| Rubric for Written Outputs

 

Excellent Above Average Developing Needs Improvement
Content:

The central theme/idea of the paper is focused and supported by evidence which indicates mastery of the content.

Organization: 

The flow of the discussion of the central theme/idea is coherent.

Presentation:

The form and presentation of the central theme/idea is clear and easy to understand..

| Rubric for Creative Outputs

 

Excellent Above Average Developing Needs Improvement
Content:

The artwork clearly presents information, ideas, and/or theme on topic which demonstrates understanding and mastery of the content.

Presentation:

The artwork is meaningful and elicits understanding on the subject.

| References

Agoncillo, T. A. (1960). History of the Filipino People. Grandwater Publications.

Agoncillo, T. A., & Mangahas, F. B. (2010). Philippine history. C & E Publishing.

Blackwood, K. (2023, March 9). Philippine study analyzes Marcos family return to power. Cornell Chronicle. https://news.cornell.edu/stories/2023/03/philippine-study-analyzes-marcos-family-return-power

Bondoc, J. (2016, October 12). Marcos War Medals Fake – officers, files. Philstar.com. https://www.philstar.com/opinion/2016/09/23/1626533/marcos-war-medals-fake-officers-files

CARIÑO, L. V. (1980). RESEARCH UNDER MARTIAL LAW: THE TASKS AND RISKS OF THE FILIPINO SOCIAL SCIENTIST. Philippine Sociological Review, 28(1/4), 3–18. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23892101

Fernandez, D. (2022, July 14). Major challenges of Marcos Admin: Inflation, foreign policy -analyst. INQUIRER.net. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1627465/major-challenges-hounding-marcos-admin-inflation-4th-industrial-revolution-foreign-policy-economic-analyst

Ferdinand E. Marcos, First State of the nation address, January 24, 1966: Govph. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. (1966, January 24). https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/1966/01/24/ferdinand-e-marcos-first-state-of-the-nation-address-january-24-1966/

Hernandez, C. G. (1988). The Philippines in 1987: Challenges of Redemocratization. Asian Survey, 28(2), 229–241. doi:10.2307/2644824

Lopez, A. S. (2020, September 14). Duterte’s achievements and failures. BizNewsAsia. https://biznewsasia.com/dutertes-achievements-and-failures/

Maximiano, J. M. B., & Rciriacruz. (2021, November 4). Why Marcos Lifted Martial Law in 1981. INQUIRER.net USA. https://usa.inquirer.net/86486/why-marcos-lifted-martial-law-in-1981

Montalvan, A. I. (2023, March 10). Bad memories of the 1971 ConCon. VERA Files. https://verafiles.org/articles/bad-memories-of-the-1971-concon

Nadeau, K. M. (2020). The history of the Philippines. Greenwood, an imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC.

Panganiban, A. V. (2023b, June 26). Writ of habeas corpus. INQUIRER.net. https://opinion.inquirer.net/164292/writ-of-habeas-corpus

Piramide, A. (2006, January 8). Constitutional authoritarianism. Philstar.com. https://www.philstar.com/opinion/2006/01/08/315691/constitutional-authoritarianism

Republic act no. 10368: Govph. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. (2013, February 25). https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2013/02/25/republic-act-no-10368/

Reyes, M. P. P., & Ariate, J. Jr. F. (2020, March 11). Marcos and the First Quarter Storm Part II: Of pillboxes and firearms – diktadura – the Marcos Regime Research. Diktadura The Marcos Regime Research. https://diktadura.upd.edu.ph/2022/09/18/marcos-and-the-first-quarter-storm-part-ii-of-pillboxes-and-firearms/

Sabillo, K. A. (2015, July 27). Philippine poverty after five years on Aquino’s watch. INQUIRER.net. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/707857/philippine-poverty-after-five-years-on-aquinos-watch

Sanchez, M. J. (2021, February 1). The People Power Revolution, Philippines 1986. Ohio State University https://origins.osu.edu/milestones/people-power-revolution-philippines-1986?language_content_entity=en

Schirmer, D. B., & Shalom, S. R. (1987). The Philippines reader. KEN Inc.

Speech of president Marcos during the termination of martial law: Govph. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. (1981, January 17). https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/1981/01/17/speech-of-president-marcos-during-the-termination-of-martial-law/

Tan, S. K. (2008). A History of the Philippines. University of the Philippines Press.

Torres, J. V. (2021). Balita: The History of Philippine Journalism (1811-2019). Vibal Publishing House.

Totanes, H. S. (1998). Kasaysayan: The story of the Filipino people. Asia Publishing Company.