Authors: Dr. Dolores Taylan and Jazzy Buela, MBA

In an interview by the author with public historian Xiao Chua (X. Chua, personal interview, July 12, 2023), he discussed a significant part of Philippine history that happened in 1898. The Americans made a promise to Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the Philippine Revolution, to help the country gain freedom from Spanish rule. At that time, the United States (US) was at war with Spain over the USS Maine incident, and Admiral George Dewey defeated the Spanish armada in the Battle of Manila Bay.

Aguinaldo returned home as a leader, and the Filipino people were inspired to continue fighting against the Spaniards, pushing them away from town to town. On June 12, in a dramatic ceremony, Aguinaldo declared Philippine Independence and introduced the country’s national symbols, such as the National Anthem and the National Flag. The flag was patterned in the colors of the US flag as a sign of gratitude for the American’s help in driving away the Spaniards.

The Philippines became the First Constitutional Democratic Republic in Asia after the Malolos Congress finished its task, and on January 23, 1899, Aguinaldo inaugurated the new government. However, tensions rose as an American serviceman shot a Filipino soldier on February 4 in Manila, leading to hostilities and a full-blown war between two republics.

Fake news spread, falsely blaming the Filipinos for starting the war, which influenced undecided people in the US Congress to support the pro-imperialists. The Treaty of Paris was then ratified, leading to challenges under American rule. While some leaders of the new Philippine Republic wanted to reject US sovereignty, others preferred negotiating peace for “home rule.” The Filipino people fought bravely, but “Benevolent assimilation” was harsh and took many lives, including civilians.

One tragic incident was the Balangiga attack, where the townspeople of Samar successfully fought against the American detachment. In retaliation, the Americans burned houses, crops, and animals, causing loss of lives and displacing people. The bells of Balangiga, which signaled the attack, were taken away by the Americans as a war trophy. The bells were only returned to the Philippines in 2018, 117 years after the tragic incident. It was delivered by the Americans and received by the Lorenzo de Martir Parish Church in Balangiga, Eastern Samar on December 15, 2018 (Senate of the Philippines, 2021). 

This part of history shows the struggles and sacrifices of the Filipino people in their quest for freedom and independence. It teaches us about the importance of understanding historical events and how they shaped the nation we have today.

| Most Essential Learning Competencies 

  • Analyzes the causes of and events during the Philippine Revolution;
  • Discusses the relevance of the declaration of a Philippine Independence and the establishment of the First Philippine Republic;
  • Analyzes the struggle for independence during the Philippine-American War;
  • Recognises the contribution of various individuals in the struggle for the recognition of Philippine independence; and
  • Analyzes the Philippine Commonwealth.

| Content Standards

By the end of this module, learners are expected to demonstrate an understanding of:

  • The governance and social transformations in the Philippines from the American period, Japanese annexation, and the struggle for the recognition of Philippine independence.

| Performance Standards

By the end of this module, learners are expected to:

  • Critically evaluate the context, causes and factors, and effects of the social transformations brought by American imperialism, Japanese invasion, and the contribution of individuals in the struggle for the recognition of Philippine independence.

Lesson 1: Philippine Democracy and the Commonwealth

| Lesson Objectives  At the end of the lesson, the student is able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the provisions of the 1899 Malolos Constitution, including its significance and contribution to Philippine history by exploring and analyzing the various articles and provisions within the constitution, understanding their implications and importance in shaping Philippine history.
  • Enumerate the causes and consequences of the Philippine-American War, showcasing a clear understanding of its historical context.
  • Recognize and articulate the significant contributions of distinguished Filipinos to the nation’s freedom, highlighting their impact on Philippine history by exploring the lives and accomplishments of notable Filipino individuals who played crucial roles in the fight for freedom and independence.

| Key Concepts

  • Symbolic Elements – the creation of the Philippine National Flag, the adoption of the Philippine National March, and the Act of the Declaration of Independence add symbolic significance to the proclamation.
  • Democracy – as described by various authors, democracy is a type of government where the power is held by the people. In this system, citizens have the privilege to be part of decision-making, either by directly participating or electing representatives. The Philippines, being a democratic nation, values freedom, equality, and the safeguarding of human rights. Democracy in the Philippines has been influenced by important historical events and the efforts of its people to gain independence, protect their rights, and create a government that looks after the welfare of its citizens.
  • Commonwealth – a transitional period in the Philippine’s history, starting in 1935, when it became a self-governing territory under the United States, and lasting until its independence in 1946. During this time, the Philippines had its own government with a President and legislature, but the United States still retained control over its foreign affairs.

| Self-Evaluation Form (Part I)

Accomplish the chart.

What do you know about the challenges of Philippine Independence? Write your answer on the first box.

On the second box, write about the things that you want to know about the topic.

What happened during the Malolos Congress

The Malolos Congress, which was held in Malolos, Bulacan, got its name from the place where it took place. This event, also known as the Revolutionary Congress, was organized by Emilio Aguinaldo, who selected more than 50 delegates to participate in the congressional elections on September 15, 1898, at Barasoain Church.

The event was filled with a sense of happiness and positivity. The Pasig Band performed the National Anthem, and Aguinaldo then proceeded to declare the start of the congress by announcing the election of officers.

Following the ceremonies, the Congress elected the following officials:

  President: Pedro Paterno

Vice-president: Benito Legarda

First Secretary: Gregorio Araneta

Second Secretary: Pablo Ocampo



The most important achievement of the Malolos Congress for the Philippine independence are as follows:

  1. On September 29, 1898, they officially approved and recognized the declaration of Philippine independence that had taken place in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898.
  2. They passed a law that authorized the Philippines to borrow Php 20 million from banks to cover government expenses.
  3. They established educational institutions such as the Universidad Literatura de Filipinas and other schools.
  4. They played a crucial role in drafting the Philippine Constitution.
  5. They made the important decision to declare war against the United States on June 12, 1899.


| The Malolos Constitution

The important details on the Malolos Constitution are the following:

  • A Committee led by Felipe Calderon drafted the first constitution of the Filipino people
  • The constitution was the first republican constitution in Asia
  • It drew inspiration from the constitutions of Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Brazil, Belgium, and France
  • Minor revisions were made, mainly due to objections raised by Apolinario Mabini
  • The final draft of the constitution was presented to Aguinaldo, paving the way for the establishment of the first Philippine Republic
  • The constitution established a democratic republic with three branches of government: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial
  • It called for the separation of church and state
  • The president of the republic was granted executive powers, to be exercised with the assistance of the cabinet
  • Judicial powers were vested in the Supreme Court and other lower courts to be created by law
  • The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court was to be elected by the legislature with the agreement of the President and the cabinet.


The Inauguration of the First Philippine Republic

On January 23, 1899, the First Philippine Republic, also known as the Malolos Republic, was established in Malolos, Bulacan, with General Emilio Aguinaldo as President. Aguinaldo had previously formed a Dictatorial Government and a Revolutionary Government, declaring independence on June 12, 1898, to inspire the people’s fight against the Spanish and gain international recognition. The Malolos Republic adopted the Constitución Política de la República Filipina, replacing the previous government. However, the Republic did not last long, as Aguinaldo was captured by the American forces on March 23, 1901, leading to its dissolution. On April 1, 1901, Aguinaldo announced allegiance to the US, ending the First Republic and acknowledging US sovereignty over the Philippines. The Philippines remained under US rule until it regained formal independence on July 4, 1946 (The Kahimyang Project, 2012). 

The Philippine-American War

The Filipino-American War timeline began on April 28, 1898, with the United States (US) initiating a war against Spain. On May 1, 1898, the historic Battle of Manila Bay took place, prompting the US to occupy the Philippines. Then, on August 13, 1898, the Mock Battle of Manila occurred, during which the Spanish demonstrated their determination to fight to the last. The “Mock Battle of Manila” on August 13, 1898, during the Spanish-American War, was a symbolic display of resistance by the Spanish forces in Manila. Despite their weakened position after the defeat in the Battle of Manila Bay, the Spanish attempted to show determination to fight. However, it was more of a show than a genuine battle. The American forces, under Major General Wesley Merritt, surrounded Manila and negotiated the city’s surrender. The “Mock Battle” served as a prelude to the eventual surrender of Manila to the United States, marking the end of Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines.

On December 10, 1898, John Hay signed the Treaty of Paris, which marked the end of the Spanish-American War and the cession of the Philippines to the US. However, on January 23, 1899, the First Philippine Republic was established in Malolos, but it was not recognized by the Americans. The outbreak of the Filipino-American War began on February 4, 1899, after a soldier named Willie M. Grayson killed a Filipino soldier, serving as a catalyst for the conflict. 

The Battle of Pasong Tirad

The Battle of Pasong Tirad occurred during Aguinaldo’s retreat to the northern part of the Philippines, and General Gregorio del Pilar, the rear guard commander, suggested making a last stand at the advantageous terrain of Pasong Tirad to temporarily halt the pursuing Americans. Del Pilar’s plan aimed to buy time for Aguinaldo to widen the distance between him and the enemy. Aguinaldo reluctantly approved the suggestion, and on December 2, 1899, the battle took place. Pasong Tirad, a 4,500-foot high pass with a narrow trail, provided a strategic view of the surrounding area. The American forces, led by Major March, pursued relentlessly to capture Aguinaldo and end the resistance. The Americans found a secret trail and surprised Del Pilar’s defenders, resulting in their defeat. Del Pilar was wounded but tried to escape, only to be shot and killed by a Krag rifle. The Americans looted his body for souvenirs. The news of Del Pilar’s death deeply affected Aguinaldo and his followers, who were determined to continue the fight against the Americans  (Agoncillo, 1990).

Balangiga Massacre

In his book “The Ordeal of Samar,” Joseph Schott (1964) vividly describes the events in Balangiga on the night of September 27. The American sentries on guard posts noticed an unusual number of women heading to church, heavily dressed and carrying small coffins. One sergeant became suspicious and opened a coffin, finding a child’s body inside. The woman claimed it was due to cholera, and the sergeant allowed her to pass. However, had he searched further, he would have discovered concealed cane-cutting bolo knives in all the coffins.

Early the next morning, Pedro Sanchez, the native chief of police, gathered around 80 laborers for their daily cleanup of the town, while Company C of 71 men and three officers was having breakfast at mess tents. Only three armed Americans were outside – the sentries walking their posts. Suddenly, chaos erupted as the bolo men launched a surprise attack. The church bell rang, and the mob of bolo men streamed out, attacking the soldiers. The laborers joined in, attacking with bolos, picks, and shovels.

Company C, taken by surprise and outnumbered, suffered heavy casualties in the first few minutes. However, a small group of American soldiers managed to fight back, killing approximately 250 Filipinos. In the end, 48 soldiers were killed or missing, 22 were wounded, and only 4 were unharmed. The survivors escaped to the American garrison in Basey.

In response to the massacre, Captain Bookmiller led a retaliatory force to Balangiga, killing some bolo men on the shore and executing 20 hiding in a nearby forest. As American soldiers were buried, Captain Bookmiller quoted from the Book of Hosea, “They have sown the wind and they shall reap the whirlwind.” This marked the end of the short-lived policy of benevolent assimilation in Balangiga (Schott, 1964).

Notable Filipinos who Fought for Freedom

Andres Bonifacio, the founder and organizer of the Katipunan, was born in  Tondo, Manila, on November 30, 1863. Growing up in poverty, he had to leave school after his parents’ death to support his family. Despite limited formal education, he had beautiful penmanship and a love for books, educating himself through self-study. He married twice, with his first wife, Monica, dying of Leprosy. In 1892, he married Gregoria de Jesus, also known as Lakangbini in the Katipunan. Bonifacio was humble and recognized the value of others, adopting Emilio Jacinto’s Kartilya as the official teachings of the society. Though the founder, he did not insist on becoming president until he felt the seriousness of the previous leaders wanting him to lead. In 1895, Bonifacio, along with others, sought refuge in the caves of Makarok and Pamitinan to avoid discovery by the authorities. Initiation rites were held, and they wrote “Long live Philippine independence” on the walls. Back in Manila, he campaigned vigorously for the society’s ideals, investigating leaks and expelling suspected traitors. Bonifacio’s decisions were unquestioned, and he took drastic action when the Katipunan’s survival was at stake (Agoncillo, 1990).

During the interview on July 12, 2023, historian Xiao Chua discussed a significant historical document dated March 22, 1948, found in Kawit, Cavite. This document was signed by Emilio Aguinaldo, and it serves as his confession of betraying Andres Bonifacio, the esteemed leader of the Philippine Revolution. The confession provides evidence that Aguinaldo had ordered the execution of Bonifacio and his brother, Procopio. Andres Bonifacio died on May 10, 1897, as a result of the internal conflicts within the revolutionary movement. According to the confession, initially, Aguinaldo had intended to exile Bonifacio and his brother instead of resorting to execution. However, he faced pressure from General Mariano Noriel and General Pio del Pilar, which ultimately influenced him to proceed with the execution of the Bonifacio brothers. This document sheds light on a critical chapter in Philippine history and adds to our understanding of the complexities and conflicts within the revolutionary movement during that time.


Melchora Aquino – fondly known as “Tandang Sora,” holds a significant place in Philippine history. Born on January 6, 1812, in Banlat, Caloocan Rizal (now part of Quezon City), her childhood remains mostly unknown. However, she displayed leadership skills and a talent for music at a young age. Tandang Sora could read and write early on, a noteworthy feat during her time.

In her youth, she married Fulgencio Ramos, and their marriage blessed them with six children. Tragically, Fulgencio passed away, leaving Tandang Sora to take on the roles of both father and mother for her family. Despite these hardships, she demonstrated courage, piety, and an industrious spirit.

Tandang Sora’s most renowned contribution came during the Philippine Revolution. Revered as the “Mother of Balintawak” and the “Grand Old Woman of the Revolution,” she stood as a symbol of strength and compassion. At the historic “Cry of Balintawak” on August 26, 1896, she was already eighty-four years old, yet her fighting spirit remained unwavering.

During the Revolution, Tandang Sora actively supported the Katipuneros, led by Andres Bonifacio. She offered them shelter in her son Juan’s storehouse and provided them with essential provisions, such as rice and carabaos. Unfortunately, government spies discovered her activities, leading to her capture.

Following Bonifacio’s advice, Tandang Sora sought refuge in Novaliches with her children, but the guardia civil pursued them relentlessly. She was apprehended, questioned, and later confined in Bilibid Prison. Eventually, Governor General Ramon Blanco exiled her to Guam.

In her later years, she reunited with her children and grandchildren in her hometown. Despite facing poverty and old age, her deep religious faith kept her cheerful and resilient.

On March 12, 1919, at the remarkable age of 107, Melchora Aquino passed away in her daughter Saturnina’s home. Her final resting place became the mausoleum of the Veterans of the Philippine Revolution at the La Loma Catholic Cemetery in Manila, preserving her legacy as a devoted mother, patriotic figure, and enduring symbol of Philippine history. Tandang Sora’s courageous spirit and unwavering dedication to her country continue to inspire generations of Filipinos (Iskomunidad, 2011).

Emilio Aguinaldo – the youngest general who became the president  of the Republic of the Philippines, was born on March 12, 1869. He was one of the heroes who fought for Philippine independence against the Spanish and American colonizers. His parents were Don Carlos Aguinaldo, a Gobernadorcillo, and Trinidad Famy. He was the seventh among eight siblings and attended elementary and secondary education at Colegio de San Juan de Letran. However, his studies were cut short when his father died during the Cholera Outbreak in 1882.

Due to his political prowess, he became the cabeza de barangay of Cavite in 1894. He joined the Katipunan, a society led by Andres Bonifacio, and became the leader of the Magdalo group. Cavite played a crucial role in the revolution as Magdalo emerged victorious in several battles against Spain. Tensions arose between the two factions, Magdalo and Magdiwang, leading to a confrontation between Aguinaldo and Bonifacio. Aguinaldo was elected president, while Bonifacio was ousted from his position as the Minister of the Interior. This incident angered Bonifacio, and he and his followers declared the election void. 

In an interview with Public Historian Xiao Chua on July 12, 2023, he talked about a very important historical paper from March 22, 1948, found in Kawit, Cavite. It was signed by Emilio Aguinaldo, who was a leader during the Philippine Revolution. In this paper, Aguinaldo admits that he did something wrong to Andres Bonifacio, another important leader of the revolution. He ordered the execution of Bonifacio and his brother, Procopio. At first, Aguinaldo wanted to send them away from the country instead of hurting them, but because of the pressure from other leaders, he changed his mind. This document helps us learn more about a crucial time in Philippine history and the challenges faced during the revolution.

Aguinaldo’s Letter admitting that he betrayed Bonifacio,that%20he%20ordered%20their%20execution.
Aguinaldo’s Letter admitting that he betrayed Bonifacio,that%20he%20ordered%20their%20execution.

Aguinaldo was compelled to go into exile in Hong Kong following the signing of the Biak-na-Bato Agreement. Commodore George Dewey facilitated his return to the Philippines. Aguinaldo resumed his position and continued fighting against the Spanish on May 19, 1898. On June 12, 1898, he declared Philippine independence and raised the Philippine flag at his house in Kawit, Cavite, as the Spanish surrendered to the Americans. On January 21, 1899, he established the Malolos Constitution in Malolos, Bulacan. However, the Philippine-American War began on February 4, 1899, with a skirmish between Filipino and American soldiers on Silencio and Sociego Streets in Manila.

As the war escalated, President Emilio Aguinaldo was pursued by the American forces. Many Filipino generals lost their lives while protecting him. Some surrendered, resulting in significant casualties. Aguinaldo was captured in Palanan, Isabela, by the American forces led by General Frederick Funston on March 23, 1901, marking the end of his presidency (Library of Congress, 2022).

General Emilio Aguinaldo passed away on February 6, 1964, at the age of 94, at Veterans Memorial Hospital in Quezon City.


According to Teodoro Agoncillo (1990), when the Philippine Legislature unanimously accepted the Tydings-McDuffie Act on May 1, 1934, Manuel L. Quezon delivered a somber warning to his people. Quezon emphasized that their acceptance of the act marked another step towards achieving their national ideal, but he urged them not to celebrate the victory. Instead, he called for a moment of dedication and commitment. 

In addition to Agoncillo’s account, other sources provide further insights into the context and implications of Quezon’s admonition. Historian David Joel Steinberg (2010) argues that Quezon’s cautionary message reflected his understanding of the challenges ahead for the Philippines as they embarked on the path to self-governance. Quezon recognized the need for sustained efforts to address the existing socio-economic conditions and the pressing issues facing the nation. 

Moreover, Quezon’s call for consecration and a lack of exultation can be interpreted as his awareness of the unfinished work and the arduous process of transitioning to independence. Filipino historian Renato Constantino highlights the complex realities that Quezon must have considered, including the need for economic development, social reforms, and the establishment of stable institutions (Constantino & Constantino, 2008)

Quezon’s admonition to the Filipino people upon the acceptance of the Tydings-McDuffie Act reflected his recognition of the responsibilities and challenges involved in governing their own nation, as well as the need for continued dedication and perseverance in pursuit of their national aspirations. 

Tydings-McDuffie Act – In 1934, the Tydings-McDuffie Act was passed, outlining the path towards Philippine independence. Agoncillo (1990) highlights the key provisions of the act, stating that the arrangement was set to last for ten years. For the first five years, there would be no tariffs on Philippine products entering the United States. However, during the subsequent five years, a 5% tariff on appropriate goods would be imposed annually. By the last year of the Commonwealth, between 1945 and 1946, a substantial 25% American tariff would then be in effect on each item exported to the US.

While the act aimed to grant independence to the Philippines, Agoncillo (1990) points out its controversial aspects. He refers to the transition period as “a shocking inequality,” as it allowed American products to enter the Philippines without reciprocal limits or duties. This imbalance in trade relations was seen as an appalling indifference to Philippine welfare, overshadowing the perceived “nobility” of the political provisions in the Tydings-McDuffie Act.

The Presidency of Manuel L. Quezon

Manuel Luis Quezon was born on August 19, 1878, in Baler, Tayabas province, which is now part of Baler, Aurora. His parents were Spanish, and at the age of nine, he began his education in Manila and later pursued law in college.

Though he initially supported the Spanish against Filipino nationalists, he joined General Aguinaldo’s fight against the Americans in 1899. This led to his imprisonment for six months on charges of murdering an American prisoner. However, after being released, Quezon caught the attention of American colonial officials due to his intelligence and charm.

His political career started in 1906 when he became the governor of Tayabas. Later, he served in the Philippine Assembly and became one of the resident commissioners in the US House of Representatives, advocating for the passage of the Jones Law.

Quezon returned to the Philippines in 1916 and was elected to the Philippine Senate, where he served as its president for 19 years until 1935. In 1935, he won the first national presidential election of the Philippines. Quezon has been known as the country’s “Ama ng Wikang Pambansa” for pushing for one Philippine language that will unite the Filipino people from the different regions – a remarkable effort that served as a precursor to the development of the official national language that we know today.

During World War II, Quezon led the Commonwealth government in exile, first in the United States and later in Washington, D.C. Unfortunately, he passed away on August 1, 1944, in Saranac Lake, New York, due to tuberculosis.

Quezon’s legacy includes promoting a Filipino code of ethics and working towards the country’s independence (The Kahimyang Project, 2012). 

List of Activities

| Synchronous Activities

Activity 1: Assess Yourself.

Description: Select the best answer for each question. 


Set A.

1. Why is the separation of powers important in a democratic government?

a) It ensures a fair balance of power among different branches.

b) It guarantees equal representation for all citizens.

c) It promotes efficient decision-making.


2. How does the concept of separation of church and state affect individuals’ freedom of religion?

a) It protects individuals from government interference in their religious beliefs.

b) It restricts the practice of religion to designated places of worship.

c) It encourages citizens to follow a specific religious doctrine.


3. In a democratic republic, what role does the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court play?

a) They oversee the executive branch’s actions.

b) They interpret and apply the law to ensure justice.

c) They create and propose new legislation.


Set B.

  1. When did the Balangiga massacre occur?

a) September 27, 1899

b) December 1, 1899

c) August 13, 1898

d) February 4, 1899


  1. Who suggested making a last stand at Pasong Tirad to halt the Americans temporarily during their pursuit of Aguinaldo?

a) General Gregorio del Pilar

b) Captain Bookmiller

c) Pedro Sanchez

d) Major March


  1. What was the significance of the coffins carried by the women heading to church before the massacre?

a) They contained bodies of children who died from cholera and fever.

b) They were secretly loaded with bolo knives.

c) They were a religious ritual to honor the fallen soldiers.

d) They were used to protest against the American occupation.


4.. How did Captain Bookmiller respond to the massacre in Balangiga?

a) He ordered a retreat to Basey.

b) He led a retaliatory force to Balangiga and executed the attackers.

c) He surrendered to the Filipino bolomen.

d) He negotiated a peace treaty with the local community.


  1. What was the main objective of this attack on the American soldiers in Balangiga?

a) To drive the Americans out of the Philippines.

b) To protect their homeland from invasion.

c) To show resistance against American occupation.

d) To seek revenge for a previous incident.


Activity 2:  Timeline

Description: Match the correct answer for each item from the information inside the box.

Set A. 

____1. Date of Inauguration                                                         A. Prime Minister

____2. President of the First Philippine Republic                   B. Malolos, Bulacan

____3. Position of Apolinario Mabini                                         C. January 21, 1899

____4. Secretary for Public Instruction                                      D. Aguedo Velarde

____5. Location of Inauguration                                                  E. Emilio Aguinaldo


Set B. 

Match the following dates to the significant event in Philippine history

  1. April 28, 1898                          a. The first major battle in San Juan del Monte between the                                                                         Filipinos and the Spanish.
  2. May 1, 1898                               b. The war between the United States and Spain began.
  3. August 13, 1898                        c. The historic Battle of Manila Bay occurred, which prompted                                                                   the United States to occupy the Philippines.
  4. December 10, 1898                 d. The Mock Battle of Manila took place. Through it, the Spanish                                                               proved that their forces would fight to the best of their abilities
  5. August 29, 1896                       e. John Hay signed the Treaty of Paris.


| Asynchronous Activities

Activity 1: What about Him?

Description: Identify the individual in the picture and provide some insights into his historical significance and contributions.









Activity 2: Reflection

Description: Which Filipino hero do you like the most from those who fought for our country’s freedom? Why do you admire that hero?

Reflect on this thought and write a 300-500 word essay.


Activity 3: Review of a President

  1. List down the key contributions of Manuel L. Quezon during his presidency.



  1. How did Manuel L. Quezon advocate for the Filipino language as a national language?



  1. List three ways you can demonstrate love for the Filipino language, which is the National Language of the Philippines.

a.  _______________________________________________________________

b. _______________________________________________________________

c. _______________________________________________________________




| Self-Paced Learning (Optional Activities)

Activity 1: Give Love

Description: Give 5 ways on how you can demonstrate your love for the country.

I can show my love for my country by…

  1. _____________________________________________
  2. _____________________________________________
  3. _____________________________________________
  4. _____________________________________________
  5. _________________________________________________


Activity 2: See for Yourself.

Watch this video: and answer the following questions:

  1. Give at least 3 changes under the Commonwealth.
    1. ______________________________________________________
    2. ______________________________________________________
    3. ______________________________________________________


2. Give the Advantages and Disadvantages of the Commonwealth

Advantages Disadvantages

Self-Evaluation Forms (Part 2)

Answer the following questions.

  1. What have you learned from the lesson?



  1. How will you apply the knowledge you have learned in this lesson in improving Philippine society?



| Rubric for Discussions


Excellent Above Average Developing Needs Improvement

The central theme/idea/argument of the student’s output is focused and supported by evidence which indicates mastery of the content.


The flow of the discussion of the central theme/idea/theme is coherent.


The form and presentation of the central theme/idea is clear, persuasive, polite, and easy to understand.


| Rubric for Written Outputs


Excellent Above Average Developing Needs Improvement

The central theme/idea of the paper is focused and supported by evidence which indicates mastery of the content.


The flow of the discussion of the central theme/idea is coherent.


The form and presentation of the central theme/idea is clear and easy to understand..


| Rubric for Creative Outputs


Excellent Above Average Developing Needs Improvement

The artwork clearly presents information, ideas, and/or theme on topic which demonstrates understanding and mastery of the content.


The artwork is meaningful and elicits understanding on the subject.


Agoncillo, T. A. (1960). History of the Filipino People (8th edition). Garotech  Publishing.

American Experience, PBS. (2018, August 10). Manuel L. Quezon. American Experience | PBS.

Chua, X. (2022, March 29). Encountering America (manila times walking history). IT’S XIAOTIME!

The Commonwealth of the Philippines: Govph. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. (n.d.).

Constantino, R., & Constantino, L. R. (2008). A history of the Philippines: From the Spanish colonization to the Second World War. Monthly Review Press. 

De Stephano, M. (2011). José Rizal, The quest for Filipino independence, and the search for ultimate reality and meaning. Ultimate Reality and Meaning, 34(1–2), 113–129.

Doran, C. (1998). Women in the Philippine Revolution. Philippine Studies, 46(3), 361–375.

Iskomunidad. (2011, October 26). Tandang Sora @ 200 – Iskomunidad. Iskomunidad.

Jimenez, Atty. J. B. (2018, December 15). The importance of returning the Balangiga Bells.

Library of Congress (2022). 

Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines (n.d.). The Commonwealth of the Philippines 

Research Guides at Library of Congress (2022). Research guides: World of 1898: International Perspectives on the Spanish American War: Introduction. Introduction – World of 1898: International Perspectives on the Spanish American War.

Schott, J. L. (1987). The ordeal of samar. Solar. 

Senate of the Philippines (2021). Senate thanks US for the return of Balangiga Bells.,Eastern%20Samar%20four%20days%20later

Steinberg, D. J. (1967). Philippine collaboration in World War II. La Solidaridad Publishing House. 

The Kahimyang Project (a). Manuel Quezon was born in Baler, Aurora August 19, 1878. (2012, August 18).

The Kahimyang Project (b). Today in Philippine History, August 30, 1850, Marcelo H. Del Pilar was born in Cupang, Bulacan, Bulacan. (2011, August 30).


The New York Times (1967). Aguinaldo, 94, Dies; Led Filipino RevoIts.