Authors: Jochelle Magboo and Patrick Serra

Family is the main way an individual is socialized. It is an institution that has changed in definition as society itself changed. From infancy through childhood, individuals are raised by parents and kin connected by blood or by community, helping them build an identity as a member of society. It is the primary social group in which children learn the first things they need to know about who they are, how they should act, what they can say, where they belong, and what communities to join. Family plays a huge role in forming and molding children to become responsible members of a community and citizens of a country.

Even as the definition of family has been changing to expand from mother, father, and siblings, to include cousins, neighbors, godparents, and grandparents, it remains the primary source of social education for a child. It is the group that transmits values, attitudes, norms, social expectations, obligations, and identity to the next generations of a society. Family also transmits political values, religious affiliations, language, gender roles, and social identity.

The module aims to introduce the concept and definition of family by exploring questions such as: “How is the family structured?”, “How do families shape individual identity?”, and “How does socialization inside the family affect the practice of agency of a child?” Learners will examine the culture of a Filipino family by reflecting on “What constitutes a ‘Filipino family?’”, “What are the common traits and culture exhibited by Filipino families?” “How is it different from or similar to other forms and types of families around the world?”.

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Module Standards

Most Essential Learning Competencies (MELCs):

  • Explain the context, content, processes, and consequences of socialization; and
  • Analyze the forms and functions of social organization (specifically family, for the purpose of this module).

Content Standards:

By the end of this module, learners are expected to demonstrate an understanding of:

  • How individuals learn culture and become competent members of society;
  • How individuals should behave as part of a political community; and
  • Cultural, social, and political institutions as sets of norms and patterns of behavior that relate to major social interests.

Performance Standards:

By the end of this module, learners are expected to:

  • Identify norms and values to be observed in interacting with others in society, and the consequences of ignoring these rules;
  • Assess the rules of social interaction to maintain stability of everyday life and the role of innovation in response to problems and challenges;
  • Analyze aspects of social organization; and
  • Identify one’s role in social groups and institutions.

Lesson 1: The Role of the Family in An Individual’s Life

Lesson Objectives

  • Recognize the family as an important agent of socialization;
  • Define the family while taking into consideration the different perspectives on the subject-matter
  • Understand the framework of Filipino families in relation to state laws, societal norms, and challenges of the nation; and
  • Differentiate the realities of different kinds of families.

 

Key Concepts

  • Family – composed of individuals caring for each other, but the term has no fixed definition.
  • Filial piety – loyalty to family or to kin.
  • Social institution – patterns or practices accepted as norms by society. 
  • Marriage – pertains to a social institution characterized by the legal union of two individuals.  
  • Socialization – refers to the process wherein an individual learns societal norms from their immediate surroundings.
  • Anticipatory socialization – social process wherein one acquires the behavior or beliefs of the social group they belong to or a group they plan on joining.
  • “Utang na loob” – Filipino value wherein one retains gratitude towards another person or party that has granted them favors in the past. 

 

Study Guide

  • Inside Our Home (Sa Loob ng Aming Tahanan)

This activity focuses on the experiences of the student at home with his/her family. The student must identify the values and norms in their home that are imposed or set by their family members. The student must then recognize which values/norms he/she conforms to or deviates from, and why.

Directions: In the first column, list the values and norms that exist in your home or family. In the second column, put a check or cross mark to the corresponding value/norm depending on whether you conform to or deviate from it. In the third column, briefly explain the ways or actions you do to conform to or deviate from this value/norm.

 

 

  • My Take on Family Tree 

Prompt: Have you seen a family tree? This assignment is not to draw your usual family tree. You won’t even be asked to create a tree!

Instructions. Create your own version of a visual illustration of a family, it can be a tree or something else. Be creative in presenting your own idea of family. You may include pictures. You may draw or paint it. You may write words you associate to your concept of family.

  • My Family in the Future

This activity will help students think more reflectively and creatively. 

Instructions. The teacher will instruct the students to draw and visualize the families that they would create for their own in the future. The teacher will give the students 5-7 minutes to finish the task, and then facilitate a show-and-tell activity.

Guide questions for the show-and-tell activity:

  • How would you describe your future family?
  • Do you think your future family is “ideal”?
  • Do you know any families that are not within the normative (traditional) mold of family? What are your thoughts about these families?

 

Self-Evaluation Form (Part 1)

Answer the following questions.

1. What do you already know about the lesson?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. What do you want to know more about the lesson?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Defining Family

What is the meaning of family?

 

  • Substantive Definition of Family – Family is a social institution found in most, if not all, societies that unites the people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including children (Macionis, 2017).
  • There is no absolute definition of family since its meaning varies depending on the specific context or reality in which it exists.

 

    • Burgess and Locke – Family is a group of persons united by ties of marriage, blood, or adoption, constituting a single household interacting with each other in their respective social roles of husband and wife, mother and father, brother and sister, creating a common culture (Burgess and Locke, 1976).
    • Belen T. Medina – While the family was traditionally seen as how Burgess and Locke defined it, the meaning of family can change depending on the current context or how the family and its members behave in the present. The family can be one where there is only one parent and the children or one with a married couple but without children. A family can be a child-headed family where older siblings take care of younger ones, one with same-sex parents, or one where grandparents act as primary caregivers instead of the parents, who are living abroad but support the childen financially (Torres, 2015).


  • Types of Family:

 

    • Nuclear family – a family composed of one or two parents and their children; also known as a conjugal family (Macionis, 2017).
    • Extended family – a family composed of parents and children as well as other kin; also known as a consanguine family (Macionis, 2017).


  • Common components of the definition of family (Macionis, 2017):
    • Biological component – descent, marriage, and kinship, presence of parent and offspring;
    • Functional component – nurturing, economic support, and socialization; and
    • Residential component – living under one household or common residence (household).


What is the meaning of family to the self?

 

  • Since the family is the first setting of an individual’s socialization process, the family influences the individual’s sense of self immensely.
    • Examples: Most children would associate their identity to their family’s status and to the characteristics and values of the members.
    • Note: Ask the students what “family” means to them. Who is family for them?

 

What is the meaning of family to Filipinos?

 

 

 

  • Filipinos are often described as family-oriented (Lanuza and Raymundo, 2016).
  • Families teach or socialize children’s practice of Filipino values such as filial piety (respect, obedience, caring for one’s parents and elderly members) and utang-na-loob (“debt of gratitude” commonly associated with the kind of care and support that individuals—particularly children—give to their parents or guardians as an obligation for effort in raising them).
  • The Filipino individual’s family-centeredness provides a basic sense of belongingness, stability, and security. Most Filipinos draw their sense of self-identity from their families as well (Lanuza and Raymundo, 2016).


What is the meaning of family for the Philippine state?

 

  • According to the 1987 Philippine Constitution, the State recognizes the Filipino family as the foundation of the nation and that it strengthens the nation’s solidarity and actively promotes its total development. 
  • Therefore, the State shall defend:

 

    • The right of spouses to found a family in accordance with their religious convictions and the demands of responsible parenthood (religious and cultural);
    • The right of children to assistance, including proper care and nutrition, and special protection from all forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation, and other conditions prejudicial to their development (welfare and economic support);
    • The right of the family to a family living wage and income (livelihood and social security); and 
    • The right of families or family associations to participate in the planning and implementation of policies and programs that affect them (political).

 

  • The State also puts the responsibility to take care of the elderly on the family, but it also implements social security programs that protect the interests of its elderly population.
  • Marriage – is a socio-sexual institution which is part of the institutional complex of the family. It is an arrangement of procreation, nurturing and defining the legitimate descent of an offspring or child. The institution of marriage represents all the behaviors, norms, roles, expectations, and values that are associated with the legal union of men and women (Lanuza and Raymundo, 2016).

Socialization in the Family

What is the role of the family in an individual’s life?

 

  • Social Group – collection of people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is something significant. Members must feel that they belong to this group.
    • Primary Group – small and tightly knit, bound by a strong sense of belonging. Members turn to other members for emotional and financial help. Example: family and friendship groups.
    • Secondary Group – large and impersonal groups whose members are bound by a shared goal and/or activity and not by emotional ties. Example: company and clubs. Note: Secondary groups may be primary depending on the amount of time and dependency members allot to other members.
  • Primary Socialization – Family is the first setting of socialization where you first experience aspects like language, beliefs, values, and norms.According to Pierre Bourdieau, the family, especially the parents or guardians, provide an individual the so-called cultural capital.
    • Family as an Agent of Socialization – “The family affects socialization in many ways. For most people, in fact, the family may be the most important socialization agent of all.” (Macionis, 2017). Infants born into families are totally dependent on the care of others.
    • Family members, especially parents, provide a safe environment and protection to an infant or child as they grow up. Family members also consciously or unconsciously teach the child ideas, values, beliefs, and norms (in the process called enculturation).
  • The Role of Family in Socialization: 
    • Development of language, skills, hobbies and interests, attitudes and behavior, personality, and character; 
    • Transmission of culture (religious, social, political, gender norms); 
    • Development of sense of belongingness; and
    • Primary relationships responsible for learning and enculturation.
  • Socialization and the Life Course: For most of us, the family is present in all stages of our lives: Childhood → Adolescence → Adulthood → Old Age → Death.
    • Influence of the Family on the Child’s Personality – A family’s social position, including race and social class, shapes a child’s personality (Macionis, 2017).
  • How does the family affect the individual’s practice of agency?
    • Political will is first developed inside the home. Many parents pass on their political beliefs to their children. However, many children also take their own political path. A more extreme example would be the existence of political dynasties.
    • An individual’s level of social awareness and action is also heavily influenced by their family’s immersion in social realities. Individuals whose family members are more socially-aware tend to have increased political participation as they grow up.

 

How does an individual socialize inside the circle of the family?

  • Anticipatory Socialization refers to the social process where an individual learns to take on the values and standards of groups that they are in or they plan to join. For example, children anticipate becoming adults in the future. They look at their parents/guardians who are adults as models to know what they need to do. Could you give other examples?

 

  • Conforming or Deviating
    • Emile Durkheim’s Concept of Deviance Applied in the Experience of the Family – Deviance serves a function:
      • Defining (cultural) values and norms – In the family, there are certain norms which are to be followed by the family members. Not following the set norm or value results in deviance by a particular member. Example: The concept of “blacksheep of the family” reveals that there are norms specific to each family. In Filipino families, a “bulakbol” (an individual who is happy-go-lucky and does not value studies, work, productivity) is usually shunned by family members.
      • Clarifying moral boundaries – At an early age, a child is taught by their parents the idea of what is good and bad (broad sense of morality). If a family member crosses the line, they might be punished. While most Filipino families do away from the practice of “pamamalo,” some still do. When children make mistakes or done something bad, parents/guardians would punish them by spanking or hitting, thus the infamous concepts of “natsinelas, nasinturon, or nabitin patiwarik.” On the other hand, when doing something good as set by the parents/guardian, children are rewarded.
      • Gender norms are first enforced in the family setting. Since gender is normally associated with functions, gender roles are normalized.
      • In doing household chores, the mother (woman) normally nurtures the family, cleans, and does other domestic functions. The father (man), however, normally attends to the matters of livelihood. In the Filipino family context, conservative parents often enforce norms in attitudes and behaviors on their children — how girls must behave, act, or dress up or how boys should not show emotions and man up. But nowadays, many families are doing-away with these beliefs and practices.

Self-Evaluation Form (Part 2)

 

Answer the following questions.

1.What have you learned from the lesson?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

2.How will you apply the knowledge you have learned in this lesson in improving Philippine society?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

List of Activities

Synchronous Activities (In-class)

Activity 1: Pamilya sa Media: Sharing Among Students

Instructions. Allow the students to reflect on their own concept of family. Have the students look for a TV commercial that portrays the concept of the family. Let them compare their own idea of family to the concept of family as portrayed by the commercial they found (homework). Ask 1-2 students to show their commercial to class. Let them share their thoughts on the commercial and their opinion on their classmates’ ideas of “family.”

 

Sample Guide Questions:

  • What is your opinion of the TV commercial’s portrayal of family?
  • Do you think the media’s portrayal of family influences a child’s perception of a family?
  • Why do most TV commercials incorporate the concept of family in their advertisements?

 

Activity 2: Different Realities

This activity will help students understand some of the realities of other Filipino families. 

 

Instructions. The teacher may play the video for the class as a synchronous class activity, or ask the students to watch on their own by sending them the video link. If the teacher has already given the task to watch Pamilya Moderno as a Self-paced Learning activity, they may ask students who have accomplished the optional task to share their thoughts to the class. The students’ sharing will enrich the discussions for Lesson 2.

 

Video link: Taruc, J. (2017, October 16). I-Witness: ‘Pamilya Moderno,’ dokumentaryo ni Jay Taruc (full episode) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fm-wlt1qbHE.

 

Activity 3: Family Roles

Instruction. This activity will help students think more reflectively and creatively. Have the students draw the roles of each family member. Have them write a brief description of the family member’s role below their drawing.

Asynchronous Activities (Take-home)

Activity 1: Letter to My Family (Reflective Assessment)

Instructions. Write a short-letter to your family. You can include your own personal message, but do not forget to also reflect about the things you say to them and the relationship between you and your family. You can add your own personal reflections on the topics we have discussed in class.

 

Sample guide questions:

  • What do you want to say to your family or a specific family member?
  • How did your family influence you as an individual?
  • What do you think about the responsibilities that a family has to its members?
  • What have you learned in life because of your family?

 

Activity 2: Ohana (Creative Assessment)

Instruction: Create a slogan representing your message for children like Lilo.

 

Have you ever watched the Disney cartoon Lilo and Stitch? Lilo’s family is also seen as an “odd one” by the people around them. It’s not just because of the aliens in their house, but because Lilo’s family is what we call a child-headed family, which is uncommon in their community—a household having no parents. Lilo and her family went through so much that she had a lot of trouble socializing with others and “fitting in” or being accepted. But with the help from her friends and sister who she considers her “ohana” (family), she was able to overcome her challenges and realize that she can find happiness in her “ohana” even though their society thinks they won’t. Lilo’s narrative is not just a fiction because it represents a reality that many children were and are in.

Self-paced Learning (Optional Activity)

Activity: Welcome Back, Mama/Papa

Instruction. Do an informal interview with a friend whose parents are working abroad. Learn about their opinions on the “transnational” family setup that they are in.

 

Guidelines for interview:

  • Be mindful of your interviewee’s comfort and emotions.
  • Do not force them to say anything that they are not comfortable talking about.
  • Assure them that any information they divulge will be between the two of you and for academic purposes only.
  • Ask permission from them if you are going to record (audiovisually) the interview.

 

Sample interview questions:

  • When did your parent(s) start working abroad?
  • What are their reasons for working as an OFW?
  • What can you say about your parent(s) working abroad?
  • What are the challenges that you face as a child with OFW parents?

Rubric for Discussions

Excellent Above Average Developing Needs Improvement
Content:

The central theme/idea/argument of the student’s output is focused and supported by evidence which indicates mastery of the content.

Organization: 

The flow of the discussion of the central theme/idea/theme is coherent.

Presentation:

The form and presentation of the central theme/idea is clear, persuasive, polite, and easy to understand.

 

Rubric for Creative Outputs

Excellent Above Average Developing Needs Improvement
Content:

The artwork clearly presents information, ideas, and/or theme on topic which demonstrates understanding and mastery of the content.

Presentation:

The artwork is meaningful and elicits understanding on the subject.


Rubric for Written Outputs

Excellent Above Average Developing Needs Improvement
Content:

The central theme/idea/argument of the student’s output is focused and supported by evidence which indicates mastery of the content.

Organization: 

The flow of the discussion of the central theme/idea/theme is coherent.

Presentation:

The form and presentation of the central theme/idea is clear, persuasive, polite, and easy to understand.

Lesson 2: The Changing Filipino Family

Lesson Objectives

By the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to:

  • differentiate the traditional idea of family from modern ones
  • recognize the impact of societal norms and sociopolitical institutions on the life of a child
  • analyze the realities of different families using different perspectives
  • communicate their ideas on the emerging issues regarding the family

Key Concepts

  • cohabitation
  • divorce
  • heteronormative
  • normative
  • one-parent families
  • remarriage
  • blended families
  • transnational families

Sub-lesson 1: Roles in families

What are the roles of each family member and how do they differ from one family to another?

 

Learning Resources

On Different Kinds of Families and the Duty of the State: Crash Course. (2017, December 19). Stages of Family Life: Crash Course Sociology #38 [Video]. YouTube. Retrieved from YouTube.

On Issues About Marriage and Family Life: Crash Course (2017, December 19). “Stages of Family Life: Crash Course Sociology #38”. [Video]. Retrieved from YouTube.

Atienza, M.E. et al (2016). Understanding Culture, Society and Politics for Senior High School. C&E Publishing. Manila, Philippines.

List of Activities

Synchronous Activities (In-class)

KWL Questions

  • This activity will assess what your students already know, want to know, and have learned after class. This will guide the teacher in gauging how they should conduct the lesson according to the needs of the learners.
  • The teacher must present the topic of the lesson to the class. They must ask the following questions at the prescribed time:
    1. What do you already know about the lesson? (Know – Before the lesson starts)
    2. What do you want to know about the lesson? (Want- Before the lesson starts)
    3. What did you learn after discussing the lesson? (Learn-After the lesson)

My Family in the Future

  • This activity will help students think more reflectively and creatively. The teacher will instruct the students to draw and visualize the families that they would create for their own in the future. The teacher will give the students 5-7 minutes to finish the task, and then facilitate a show-and-tell activity.
  • Guide questions for the show-and-tell activity:
    1. How would you describe your future family?
    2. Do you think your future family is “ideal”?
    3. Do you know any families that are not within the normative (traditional) mold of family? What are your thoughts about these families?

Different Realities

  • This activity will help students understand some of the realities of other Filipino families. The teacher may play the video for the class as a synchronous class activity or ask the students to watch on their own by sending them the video link. If the teacher has already given the task to watch Pamilya Moderno as a Self-paced Learning activity, they may ask students who have accomplished the optional task to share their thoughts to the class. The students’ sharing will enrich the discussions for Lesson 2.
  • Video link: Taruc, J. (2017, October 16). I-Witness: ‘Pamilya Moderno,’ dokumentaryo ni Jay Taruc (full episode) [Video]. YouTube

Asynchronous Activities (Take-home)

Ohana (Creative Assessment)

  • Prompt: Have you ever watched the Disney cartoon Lilo and Stitch? Lilo’s family is also seen as an “odd one” by the people around them. It’s not just because of the aliens in their house, but because Lilo’s family is what we call a child-headed family, which is uncommon in their community — a household having no parents. Lilo and her family went through so much that she had a lot of trouble socializing with others and “fitting in” or being accepted. With the help of her friends and sister who she considers her “ohana” (family), she was able to overcome her challenges and realize that she can find happiness in her “ohana” even though their society thinks they won’t. Lilo’s narrative is not just fiction because it represents a reality that many children were and are in.
  • Direction: Create a slogan representing your message for children like Lilo.

Seatwork/Quiz (Summative Assessment)

Self-paced Learning (Optional Activities)

Welcome Back, Mama/Papa

  • Prompt: Do you know anyone whose parents are working or have worked abroad? Perhaps it’s time to listen closely to what they have to say about their situation.
  • Directions: Do an informal interview with a friend whose parents are working abroad. Know their opinions about the “transnational” family setup that they are in.
  • Guidelines for interview:
    • Be mindful of your interviewee’s comfort and emotions.
    • Do not force them to say anything that they are not comfortable talking about.
    • Assure them that any information they divulge will be between the two of you and for academic purposes only.
    • Ask permission from them if you are going to record (audiovisually) the interview.
  • Sample interview questions:
    1. When did your parent(s) start working abroad?
    2. What are their reasons for working as an OFW?
    3. What can you say about your parent(s) working abroad?
    4. What are the challenges that you face as a child with OFW parents?

References

Belen T.G. Medina. (2015). The Filipino Family. 3rd Edition. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Burgess, E.W. and Locke, H. J. (1945). The Family: From institution to companionship. New York: American Book Company.

Lanuza, Gerry & Raymundo,Sarah. 2016.Unit IV: Culture and Society”. Understanding Culture, Society and Politics. First Edition. Manila: Rex Book Store, pp. 184-216.

Torres, A. (2015). The Changing Filipino Family. Philippine Sociological Review, 63, 223-228. Retrieved September 16, 2020, from jstor.org

 

 

Learning Materials

 

On Socialization and Family: Crash Course. (2017, June 20). Socialization: Crash Course Sociology #14 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K-RvJQxqVQc 

On Family as a Social Group: Crash Course. (2017, July 4). Social Groups: Crash Course Sociology #16 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_wFZ5Dbj8DA

On Different Kinds of Families and the Duty of the State: Crash Course. (2017, December 19). Stages of Family Life: Crash Course Sociology #38. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWTz3KBCxfg.

On Issues About Marriage and Family Life: Crash Course (2017, December 19). “Stages of Family Life: Crash Course Sociology #38”. [Video]. Retrieved September 15, 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWTz3KBCxfg.

Atienza, M.E. et al (2016). Understanding Culture, Society and Politics for Senior High School. C&E Publishing. Manila, Philippines.

On Different Kinds of Families and the Duty of the State: Crash Course. (2017, December 19). Stages of Family Life: Crash Course Sociology #38

[Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWTz3KBCxfg.

On Issues About Marriage and Family Life: Crash Course (2017, December 19). “Stages of Family Life: Crash Course Sociology #38”. [Video]. Retrieved September 15, 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWTz3KBCxfg.\

Atienza, M.E. et al (2016). Understanding Culture, Society and Politics for Senior High School. C&E Publishing. Manila, Philippines.

 

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